Maltapress’s Weblog

Malta, Europe, European, EU, Governments, Consumers, Rights,

Liberal guilt that hurts Africa


Martin Kettle
guardian.co.uk,
Sunday 24 May 2009 14.30 BST
Article history

Dambisa Moyo pulls no punches. International aid to Africa has failed, she says. It hurts rather than helps. It does not equip individuals for the world. It destroys rather than empowers local leaders. Not a single country on the continent has become prosperous or stable through aid. Aid creates failed states rather than rescuing them. The situation is deteriorating not improving. An entire generation of young Africans is growing up in states which don’t work and in states where there is no work. The consequence is civil strife and the breakdown of order. Things will get worse, not least because the west cannot sustain its aid policies during the recession. The developed world should set a five-year deadline to stop aid altogether.

Views like these, expressed by the Zambian writer in her book Dead Aid, have made Moyo the darling of the old Anglo-American right and the despair of the old left. So you might think that her ideas would cause a riot, even among the herbivores who mostly comprise a Hay festival audience – or at least an outbreak of tut-tutting. But what was striking about Moyo’s discussion of her book with Jon Snow on Sunday morning was that most of the audience seemed content to take her views on the chin. Very few of the questions or comments from the floor were critical, while none of them mounted a fullblown challenge to her views.

I conclude from this that Moyo’s argument makes a liberal audience uneasy but that they rather suspect she may be right. If good intentions could change the world then the advocates of aid would have redeemed Africa a dozen times over. Yet good intentions and admirable motives, while obviously better than malign intentions and suspect motives, are not enough. Africa has 100,000 millionaires. Every African alive today has received roughly $5,000 in aid. If aid were the solution to Africa’s problems it would be a rich continent. Calls for Marshall Plans for Africa — a favourite ploy of Gordon Brown — rather overlook the fact that Africa has already received the equivalent of six equivalents of the original postwar Marshall plan in cash terms. Calls to open hearts and wallets make good headlines and make donors feel good but they don’t actually solve the problems. Playing on liberal guilt does not build a new Africa for its people. As Moyo says, no one would look to Michael Jackson for the answer to the credit crunch. So why would anyone expect Bono to have the answer to African misgovernment and dependency?

It is beyond dispute that Moyo sweeps casually over many issues that are more complicated than her analysis and well-crafted phrases allow. But I am equally sure that she is asking questions that need to be articulated and debated honestly rather than emotively, or as a test of moral sincerity, even if she has a somewhat scatter-gun approach. The issues around aid are best compared to the issues around the welfare state. Handouts do not automatically create welfare dependency. But they certainly can do so. And where dependency is not addressed, disorder and deliquency can follow. The lesson of late-20th-century welfare system is that dependency needs to be replaced by incentivisation, but without abandoning moral obligation. The same is true for aid. It’s a pity that the left, which has begun to face the facts over welfare reform, has not yet collectively faced them over aid. That’s why the Hay audience was right to feel more uneasy than angry at Moyo’s iconoclastic views.

Liberal guilt that hurts Africa

Advertisements

May 25, 2009 Posted by | Africa, Africa's riches, African resources, Africans, Amnesty International, Belgium, Britain, Colonial Africa, Dambisa Moyo, Denmark, France, Germany, Gonzi, Holland, Italy, Jesuits, Malta, Malta Government, Malta Labour Party, Malta Nationalist Party, Malta Newspapers, Malta NGO's, Malta Prime Minister, Maltese, Médecins Sans Frontières, MLP, MSF, Netherlands, NGO groups, NGO's, PN, Poland, Poverty, Poverty in Africa, Spain, UK, UN Agencies, UNHCR, United Kingdom, United Nations | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Malta EU Elections – PN vs PL


The Maltese public seems very weary in putting their trust in the two major political parties. Most say they have close to the same agenda. Well to get an idea you have to think of it as organized crime, You can call the PN as the Genovese’s and the PL the Gambino’s. It’s all a power game to them, where occasionally each party tries to politically assassinate another party’s candidate, especially if he edges into his opponent’s territory. But when they both feel threatened then that’s where both the PN and the PL unite to destroy anybody else encroaching on their territory.

 Sure that they say a lot of crap with regards to their responsibility towards their citizen, let’s face it, how many of us can put his hand on his heart and say that we are living in a safer Country now ( Government, Police and Security forces do not know who or how many foreigners are actually living in Malta), that our health care system is improving (Having an understaffed hospital with long lists of citizens waiting for a hospital service), that our infrastructure is improving (roads, energy services, environment, housing, etc), that our education system is improving (we are creating certified zombies that are qualified but not ready for a working world), That our Social system is improving (yes it is improving for those who knows how to abuse it but discriminatory with those that paid into it for their retirement with the Government now saying it is getting unsustainable), The judiciary system (Justice seems to punish the victims and rewards the criminals), Workers rights improvement (unfair worker competition y authorities turning a blind eye on illegal work being done foreign workers and those abusing the social system, allowing employers to abuse the system by using part timers to absolve them from having to pay workers for leave, sick leave etc).

So one can easily see that by keeping either the Genovese’s (PN) or the Gambino’s (PL), it is definitely not in our National interest but definitely in their interest as they can both keep lining their pockets with our tax money without being accountable. That is why they both (The Genovese’s (PN) or the Gambino’s (PL)) keep delaying in reaching an agreement to audit and publish any of their financial reports. Keeping their propaganda machine costs millions of euros per year even in Malta and that money is coming from somewhere, and those investing in the Genovese’s (PN) or the Gambino’s (PL) will want a return on their investment. I can’t imagine anyone in Malta today believe that anybody gives anything for nothing to a Political Party that are unaccountable of how money is being received and by whom or spent and to whom. I am not talking about the small fry here either.

Malta FlagSmarten up people. Read and look up information. Never rely on any of the Genovese’s (PN) or the Gambino’s (PL) propaganda machine. Research the vast amount of information on the internet and see with your own eyes if what you are paying in taxes is being translated in a better life for you, your family and your community. Use your option if you have to in voting in other minority party candidates to the traditional Genovese’s (PN) or the Gambino’s (PL) parties, at the end of the day we will be better served politically as they will all feel threatened- this time by the public.

To see how credible the Genovese’s (PN) can only be reached by this statement. Before Malta joined the EU we have done a referendum where it was accepted by the Maltese people to join the EU. We also demonized the Gambino’s (PL) for saying that they will not accept the referendum results. Now we had the EU not accepting referendum results of French, Dutch and Irish for an EU Constitution cum Treaty,and the Genovese’s (PN) did not utter a word, in fact they went behind our backs and in conspiracy with the Gambino’s (PL) they denied us a referendum to chose our way forward- Hypocrites by a well organized crime Mafia parties Genovese’s (PN) or the Gambino’s (PL).

May 24, 2009 Posted by | Gonzi, Incompetent Malta Government, Malta, Malta Government, Malta Labour Party, Malta Nationalist Party, Malta Newspapers, Malta Unions, Maltese, Maltese Justice, MLP, PN | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Malta – Europe – Trust in Politicians


Euronews – The European Official TV Channel conducted an onlone Poll the Question for this Poll was:

Do we really TRUST our Politicians?

Do we really TRUST our Politicians?

Public trust in politics: do you think your country’s politicians are honest?

Yes:    7%

No:   88%

Not Sure: 4%

http://www.euronews.net/news/you/

So before Our dear Politicians continue with their arbitrary legislation on everything under the sun, it is better to start implimenting a more viable way of doing politics by letting the people partecipate more in HOW THEY WANT TO BE GOVERNED. GIVE US OUR COUNTRY BACK AND GIVE BACK THE POWER TO THE PEOPLE.

Politicians have hijacked the whole finances of the country while abdicating their responsability towards taxpayers. Yes to helping those that geniunely needs a push to fend for themselves, No to those that abuse the social assistance that live off it- Do not let these abusers live indefenitly of free money inteded to assist them out of falling behind, it should be only intended as a temporary measure to getthem back on their feet. WE demand accountablity from our Politicians, those that underperform should be removed by their own Political Party and should not be rewarded for failure. Workers Unions have more of a responsability than squabling over how much members each union has, you have the moral duty to police the Government on how our Tax money is spent and focus on the deterioration in standards of living. WE HAVE A RIGHT TO AFFORDABLE EDUCATION, ENERGY,HEALTH  AND SECURITY. Our Police, Judiciary and Security forces systems should focus on what they where created for – TO PROTECT THE COUNTRY AND IT”S CITIZENS FROM CRIME, AND THAT MEANS ALL SORTS OF CRIME AS DEFINED BY LAW.

Discepline and honest should work from the top down, We have created a two tier system where those in Authority can abuse all the systems and law, while the honest hard working citizen end up paying for it all. Politicians preach democracy while participating in it’s decline.

May 21, 2009 Posted by | Gonzi, GWU, Incompetent Malta Government, Malta, Malta corruption, Malta Government, Malta Labour Party, Malta Nationalist Party, Malta Newspapers, Malta NGO's, Malta Prime Minister, Malta Public Broadcasting Service, Malta Unions, Maltese, Maltese Justice, MLP, NGO groups, NGO's, PN, Poverty, UHM | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Malta – the island with no statistics!!!


For every EU member Country, one can find statistic of how National statistics relates to each citizens. Unfortunately , financial statistics in Malta a lagging, spaced out or actually outdated. It is actually what our Prime Minister, Minister of Finance and the PN administration nightmare. It is the truth that they want to hide from our Workers unions and employers. It is also a deficit carried by our Newspaper reporters and journalist that also avoid asking the relevant questions to keep us informed unlike their colleagues in Europe . Our National Statistics office is devoid of such interesting information on their website although our Government boasts of world class Government IT. The PL is also more concerned with petty issues and devoid of information and statistics to be made public and uptodate. Here is an example of statistics in the UK:

 The Recession By Numbers

Source: Credit Action, debt facts and figures, May 1st 2009

  • £84m is the interest the Government has to pay each day on the UK’s net national debt of £743.6bn. This is projected to rise to £118m a day (£43bn) in financial year 2010 – 2011.
  • Total UK personal debt at the end of March 2009 stood at £1,459 billion.
  • Total consumer credit lending to individuals over the last 12 months ending March 2009 was £232 billion.
  • Average household debt in the UK is £9,280 (excluding mortgages). This figure increases to £21,580 if the average is based on the number of households who have some form of unsecured loan.
  • Average owed by every UK adult is £30,475 (including mortgages).
  • During March 2009 Britain’s personal debt increased by £1 million every 50 minutes.
  • 3,000 people made redundant every day and 1 in 33 people currently in work are expected to become unemployed in 2009.
  • 1 property repossessed every 10 minutes.
  • 1 person declared bankrupt every 4.5 minutes.
  • 33,600 applications for credit have been turned down every day during the past six months.
  • Citizens Advice Bureaux deal with 7,241 new debt problems every day.
  • A recent poll conducted by the Resolution Foundation found that nearly 3 million people earning between £12,000 and £27,000 per year worry ‘all the time’ about their personal finances.
  • We work the first 83 days of any given year just to earn enough money to service the interest on our debts
  • Total credit card debt in March 2009 was £53  billion.
  • The UK collective credit limit on credit cards is £158bn, which is an average credit card limit of £5,129 per person.
  • The average interest rate on credit card lending is currently 17.6%, which is at least 17.1% above current base rate.

May 20, 2009 Posted by | Gonzi, GWU, Incompetent Malta Government, Malta, Malta Government, Malta Labour Party, Malta Nationalist Party, Malta Newspapers, Malta Prime Minister, Malta Public Broadcasting Service, Malta Unions, Maltese, MLP, PBS, PN, UHM, United Kingdom | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Malta Political Accountability


It is getting rather sickening, seeing PN and PL fighting each other to death like a pair of gladiators in a Political Coliseum. I have seen the PN Political spot on TV, which practically says that the PL are working against the interest of Malta and the Maltese. I will never believe that ever, and people with some gray matter for brains can never believe that the PL and PN are actively seeking against Malta and the Maltese. I rather believe that both the PN and PL don’t like to take long term views and actions beyond their five year term in office, which means that their priorities for Malta and the Maltese is somewhere down the line in their priority list. Their first priority is getting or retaining power at all costs. Second on their list is definitely to please those that matter (EU, NGO’s, Financial Party Supporters, and The Media).Thirdly what personal financial gain they are going to get from Politics, then maybe it’s Malta and the Maltese.

What irks me most in Maltese Politics is the lack of accountability of retaining the status quo, in other words limiting our representation to PL or the PN. Let’s face it, everybody seems to know that a few months before any election (General, Local Counsel and MEP), they both start to listen to the public, not to address them, just to address their election campaign accordingly.

The Real Truth see next video:

Everybody also knows that mostly it is based on lies, deceit, or omitting anything of relevance. It is also almost predictable that if the electorate wants to arrive at some sort of true picture of PL and PN intentions, the direct opposite of what they say is almost spot on of what will actually happen.

Accountability is so frustrating, that it begs the question of how truly democratic Malta is. I had visited the website transparency.org (see report 2008) to see how Malta ranks on the corruption perception index for 2008 and was worried for the fact that we rank as number 36 with two other Countries Botswana and Puerto Rico with an index of 5.8 (10 being non corrupt and 0 being corrupt).What is even more worrying is the fact that in 2007 we ranked at number 33 albeit still 5.8 on the scale index (report 2007) . Then I started thinking and realized how rampant our Political system is in corruption. First let us take the last general election, everybody knows that Enemalta belongs to the Maltese Government, He is also the appointee of its directors, everybody also knows that the bills in that election year where delayed by months. Everybody also knows that just after the election all electric bills started coming out of enemalta like hot cakes with hefty bills. I would classify that as corruption to the tune of buying votes by not issuing the bills at their appropriate time for political gain, throwing a lot of the public under financial stress for the sake of PN’s political gain. Same when the PN says that Malta gained a lot financially from the EU in the tune of over a billion Euros. Where the hell did they spend them? Roads – definitely NO as they are in a worse state as when the British left, they might say the Airport to Ghajn Tuffieha road – er NO that was done under the Italian Protocol agreement, where the new Mater Dei Hospital – NO that was under our own budget, the Airport- NO, Power Station-NO, the half baked Cirkewwa sea terminal-NO, where the hell did they go? Can anybody please enlighten me as to the Billion+ euros whereabouts? All I know is that political party’s finances (both PL and PN) are well hidden from the public scrutiny, to such an extent that now there is the VAT department being investigated of fraud by some of its employees that made off with what is described as millions that were lost in public revenue, with businesses and businessmen helping in the police investigation. Accountability – None. Same goes for NGO and Charity groups, I could not  find one that has an audited published account that I could see on their websites. One has one for 2007 but when you look into it there is hardly anything that gets it anywhere near that can be classified as a financial audited report – some of them are getting public grants and exempted from taxation- So should I as a tax payer expect at least as a minimum, an audited published account as to how these groups that benefitted from these grants, donations and tax relief initiatives have spent these benefits, a real break down on how money was spent and from were it was received- that will never happen in Malta. Corruption comes under many different shades and definitions, including not legislating in favor of a whistle blowers act that protects person/s  reporting abuse, it also means taking immediate action when the ombudsman clearly stipulates an abuse has been committed, it also means that when the EU sends a reasoned opinion and threaten to take Malta to ECJ (European Court of Justice) the Government does not wait till 11th hour to take action just for the sake of financial gain like in cases of departure tax and car vat registration and others.

PL has nothing to be proud of either as people had asked for change in their leadership years ago, but the corrupt elements that held the PL hostage for personal gain is a well known fact. The cost was that there was no political alternative to PN to the detriment of Malta’s democracy. The PN’s cunningness to betray the voters at all cost at the last general election is manifested with the JPO case. They have both betrayed the public by not allowing Political competition, they manipulate the media, they both have their deceitful propaganda machine that excludes other political views from making headway, they have secret agreements between PN and PL as was the case on illegal immigration and was recently declared by the PN as gloves are off now that PL has abandoned the agreement. The ‘Independent’ Malta Broadcasting Authority is made up of PL and PN agreed officials, ex-members of parliament that where voted out by the electorate is rewarded by either high profile positions and given a golden handshake from taxpayers money (no different from rewarding failed banks CEO’s in Europe and America). Superficial restructuring like what happened in the transport system, where liberalizing for competition means hefty tariffs on those entering the market to protect the status quo. And much more, it is a political circus more than a free market economy based on democracy. One day we will learn that it is for the common good of our Country and to the Maltese benefit to ‘liberalize’ the political system as the power will only then be handed down to the people and hold those employed by the taxpayer to account.

——————————————————————————————————–

Jenny Mackenzie: Harsh truth is that aid hurts rather than helps

Published Date: 19 May 2009

By Jenny Mackenzie

DIG deeper into your empty purse, the letter said. A chief of one big charity urged us, in a letter to this newspaper, to keep up all of our international aid programmes, despite the dark days.

“We must continue to help Africa”, the writer remonstrated, in case you were thinking of cutting back. But let’s just consider that for a minute. Another eloquent writer, African, internationally educated, with a CV to die for, has just shocked the World with a claim, backed up with pages of facts, that international aid isn’t working. She says that charity, and lots of it, is actually killing her country of birth, Zambia, and most of the whole continent of Africa.

Dambisa Moyo’s book, Dead Aid, is provocative, shocking, brutally honest, and brandishes some very harsh facts indeed. It’s not the first time these things have been said, but this time it’s an African who is saying it. Perhaps it’s time to sit up and listen.

“Aid has actually worsened poverty,” says Dambisa. The most aid-dependent countries, she says, have exhibited an average annual growth rate of -0.2 per cent. She notes that when aid flows to Africa were at their peak, for the last 30 years of the 20th century, the poverty rate actually rose from 11 per cent to a staggering 66 per cent.

“Transferring large amounts of money from one government to another encourages corruption, creates aid dependency, kills off exports and disenfranchises Africans,” says Dambisa. Underpinning all of this is a much more serious problem. “Many Africans,” says Dambisa “are now addicted to aid.”

Please stay calm. It’s an emotive subject for sure. We appear to live on the wealthier side of the world. It’s hard to bear that there are others starving and suffering in countries much poorer than our own. Many of us give, generously, sometimes in compassion, sometimes to address our guilt. But have we really thought this through? Just who is that helping?

Musician and trained counsellor Sylvain Ayite was born in Senegal. Now father of a son and a daughter, Sylvain lives in Edinburgh. He would like us to stop seeing the African continent and Africans as separate from ourselves, the problems as being “over there” rather than “over here”.

“We need to focus on education, not aid,” he says. That education should be as much of ourselves, as anyone outside our own borders, says Sylvain.

“We need to reflect on what we really mean by ‘helping’. Who are you helping by being the ‘helper’? What is your authority? If we are not reflective, one just becomes the person with power, a gratifying position for the giver. But there should not be two sides that remain the same, those who give and those who receive. This will never lead to change, to a transformation where there is health and empowerment on both sides.”

Celebrity giving – it’s a touchy subject too, but actually “irrelevant, adding only very negative PR” to the main debate, says Dambisa.

Bono and Sir Bob Geldof have brought a glamour to giving that rocks the emotions. When G8 came to Scotland, it was soul-searching for all of us. Waves of well-wishers poured off the trains with bicycles and backpacks. They cared, it was moving and it created a tide of euphoria that has carried us all along ever since. We can do this thing. We can slash the debt, we can even the inequalities, we can kick poverty’s ass. We can make poverty history.

But that’s not how it has happened. On the contrary, things are not getting better, but worse, and more people are questioning our rationale. Bono lectured one audience about Africa. He slow hand clapped. “Every time I clap” he said piously, “A child dies”.

“So stop clapping!” quipped one audience member. He had heard enough.

These are hard things to hear. It’s not very nice, but there can be sharp lessons to learn. “Gimme the money”. It can get that crude. “What do you mean – how do I plan to use it?” It can get that arrogant.

For every negative tale of cynicism, there could well be ten of successful empowerment and mutual respect. More important though, as Sylvain Ayite adds, we need to think again.

“There is a better way than aid,” says Dambisa. “Of course there is a moral imperative to respond to humanitarian need, but the non-aid models, the emerging market economies, like South Africa and Botswana, are working. Developing macro-finance projects, regulating free trade, actually setting a date for the day that aid to that economy – and dependency – will cease, this is the way for the future.”

Eminent economist and historian Niall Ferguson, among other things a professor at Harvard business school, prefaces Dambisa’s book, naming her “hard- headed and big-hearted”, urging us to listen and asking us to review our own behaviour.

I think I go with his last remark. “This reader was left wanting” he says “A lot more Moyo, and a lot less Bono

Dambisa Moyo Discusses ‘Dead Aid’ at the Cato Institute

FOX Business – Dambisa Moyo says Aid to Africa isn’t working

May 19, 2009 Posted by | Enemalta, Gonzi, Illegal Immigration, Malta, Malta corruption, Malta Government, Malta Labour Party, Malta Nationalist Party, Malta Newspapers, Malta NGO's, Malta Prime Minister, Maltese, MLP, NGO groups, NGO's, PN | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Malta, Europe, UN, NGO’s – Humanitarian Mismanegment


The European Taxpayer is getting highly irritated with Politicians in their respective Countries. It is a expensive exercise for European taxpayers to acquire what is supposed to be a service from Politicians to manage our Countries. It is also an area that is highly unregulated, with Politicians assuming the right that instead of good management of our finances acquired through direct and indirect taxation, as their own private property, having to answer to nobody and that they answer to nobody, except for going to the polls every five years or so. They legislate in their favor into how much or if they deserve a pay rise, their expenses are as good as giving each one of them a blank cheque book, they are immune to persecution from the law of the land, they have ample ground to hide their tracks from auditors, they do not make available to the media all that should made public regarding their financing or their political party’s financing.

If one notices, they privatized everything that once belongs to the collective wealth of one’s Country, except their jobs and positions. Now we are also experiencing having to buy back toxic assets in the ‘Free Market’ financial system, not because they want to save our jobs, homes or savings, but simply to protect their investments in these failed institutions. Now this applies to all European Governments including the European Union Institutions, anarchy seems to be the order of the day.

Italy, under Silvio Berlusconi have had enough, they stopped to think, listened to the people, and acted upon the people’s concerns and legislated in their favor. Actually they went back to basics; Italy belongs to Italians and Law abiding residence permit holders, that they can spend their tax money according to Italy’s needs and requirements, to alleviate Italians solidarity needs with those needing it, for the security of Italians in their homes, neighborhood, cities and Country. In doing so, unelected NGO groups and International bodies said NO, Italians have no right for security and peace in their own Country and if they carry on with this policy, they are breaking International law!!

NGO’s and International Groups (UN and its agencies, Amnesty International, Medicines Sans Frontiers and other duplicate agencies) have been having it easy for too long. They hardly publish their accounts to today’s modern transparency accounting practices; they never restructure to reflect today’s needs, they pray on public funds and public sentiments without setting targets in either alleviating poverty in the world, stopping wars and bringing people committing atrocities to justice. It is a matter of one’s loss is another’s gain. They gain from other’s misery. That is why they never restructure or merge duplicate operations as a cost cutting exercise for a good service.

We as taxpayers, demand a stop to all this. The Media and journalists worthy of the name, must do more to inform and expose misuse of public funds even in NGO groups and International agencies such as the UN. They have a duty as Does our European Capital in the EU, to be transparent and accountable, they have to earn back our trust in Politicians and Institutions. Politicians are duty bound as their oath in office, that first and foremost protect their Country and its rightful citizens in all functions that compose a Country. Yes to Solidarity with poor Countries, refugees and those that are going through a crisis be it what it may, but NO to bringing everybody to the West in order to achieve this. Give them the instruments in world for a, desist from temptation of multinational Companies to make agreements with Countries that don’t play by international rules, intervene early where atrocities take place in the best interest of the world community, get the involvement of all international communities as the west cannot afford to neglect their own citizens while others just watch and criticize well intentioned actions. It is called back to basics, where citizens first of all felt secure in their own Country in order to assist others. We need to have some kind of law and order that we can respect, to afford to have and build a family for the benefit of our Country. Europe can ill afford to receive in its homeland the millions of Africans wanting to earn a living at our expense, yes we can help them in their homeland and show them the benefits of freedom, but not by giving aide to corrupt unaccountable governments that don’t have the decency to sign international rights laws, they are just making mockery of us as a well intentioned Union of People wanting to help, you will only waste our money that can help our own needy people in Europe by giving up our hard earned cash to non signatories Nations of  UN rights conventions by doing so. You will have aided corruption to flourish; you would be no better off than those corrupt Governments. Europe should enlist the expertise of Dambisa Moyo (writer of Dead Aide)

to understand poverty and how to manage it. Multi culture in Europe is dead, and the people mean it, We do not want another Yugoslav tragedy in our midst on a grander scale, because if we keep on this track, it will be only a matter of time till another stupid Hitler crops up in Europe that gathers enough support to wreck havoc and misery.

Dambisa Moyo interesting talk (Templeton Foundation) part1

Dambisa Moyo interesting talk (Templeton Foundation) part2

Dambisa Moyo interesting talk (Templeton Foundation) part3

Dambisa Moyo interesting talk (Templeton Foundation) part4

Dambisa Moyo interesting talk (Templeton Foundation) part5

Moyo- Proof that NGO’s have a vested interest in keeping Africa poor!

Dambisa Moyo- Proof that NGO’s have a vested interest in keeping Africa poor!

Dambisa Moyo- Proof that NGO’s have a vested interest in keeping Africa poor!

 Dambisa Moyo on interview -Bloomberg

Dead Aide in Africa : Dambisa Moya (African writter and economist) and Alison Evans (International Monetary Fund IMF economist) interviewed on BBC Hardtalk:

Dambisa Moyo Alison Evans- BBC Hard Talk Part 1  

Dambisa Moyo Alison Evans- BBC Hard Talk Part 2

Dambisa Moyo Alison Evans- BBC Hard Talk Part 3

The UN undecisive mess created in Africa- Jendayi Fraser on BBC Hard Talk
US Assistant Secretary of State for African affairs (George Bush Administration:

Jendayi Fraser on BBC Hard Talk- Part1

Jendayi Fraser on BBC Hard Talk-Part 2

Jendayi Fraser on BBC Hard Talk- Part 3

—————————————————————–

Euronews Oline Polls

 

Accountability of Politicians and Political Parties

Accountability of Politicians and Political Parties

 

Should all political expenses be made public?
yes                  (87%)
no                    (8%)
I don’t know (5%)
 

 

 

 

Controlling a silent European Invasion

Controlling a silent European Invasion

Is the EU doing enough to help countries control illegal immigration?
yes                  (14%)
no                   (80%)
I don’t know (6%)

—————————————————————————

Italy Cracking Down on Illegal Immigration
By Sabina Castelfranco
Rome
14 May 2009
 

Italy is cracking down on illegal immigration and under an agreement with Libya has begun sending boatloads of migrants back to Africa. Italy’s lower house of parliament has approved a new security bill by that redefines illegal immigration as a criminal offense.

During a ceremony in the Italian port town of Gaeta, Interior Minister Roberto Maroni gave Libya the first three of six patrol boats as part of an agreement to stem the flow of illegal immigrants.

Italy has long pressed Libya to better patrol its coasts to prevent boats carrying African immigrants from leaving its shores in search of a better life in Europe.

 

Rescued migrants react on board an Italian coast guard boat while arriving at the port of Tripoli, Libya, 07 May 2009

Rescued migrants react on board an Italian coast guard boat while arriving at the port of Tripoli, Libya, 07 May 2009

 

 

Last week, Italy started sending boatloads of migrants it intercepted in international waters back to Libya without first screening them for asylum claims. Libyan Ambassador to Italy Hafid Gaddur said his country could process the requests from asylum seekers who might otherwise have presented the requests in Italy.

The U.N. refugee agency has criticized the new policy, saying it is against international law and criticizing Libya’s alleged lack of facilities.

But Interior Minister Maroni said Italy needs international backing.

He said in the fight against illegal immigration, there are a lot of instruments at our disposal, but they are not sufficient if there is a lack of international collaboration to combat the trafficking of human beings.

Maroni said said the European Union must step in and help member states that bear the brunt of illegal immigration in the Mediterranean. He said Italy is a front-line state against illegal immigration and invests its own funds to protect other European countries.

Wednesday, Italy’s lower house of parliament approved a security bill that redefines illegal immigration as a criminal offense. The lawmakers voted to fine illegal immigrants up to $15,000 and jail people who house them in Italy.

The new measures would lengthen the amount of time illegal migrants can spend in detention and allows local officials to set up citizen patrols.

The new security bill must be approved by the Italian Senate, parliament’s upper house, before it becomes law.

Italy receives the world’s fourth-highest number of asylum claims each year after the United States, Canada and France.

——————————————————————————– 

Italian MPs back crackdown on illegal migrants

New law criminalizing illegal entry or residence is aimed at curbing boats run by smuggling rings

Wednesday 13 May 2009 13.52 BST

Italy‘s lower chamber of parliament passed a controversial bill today making it a crime to enter or stay in Italy illegally‚ in the latest effort by Silvio Berlusconi’s conservative forces to crack down on illegal immigration.

To ensure swift passage, the Italian prime minister’s allies put the legislation to a confidence vote, which they easily won 316-258. Confidence votes force MPs to close ranks, since any defeat would bring about the government’s resignation.

The legislation makes it a crime to enter or stay in Italy without permission, punishable by a fine of €5,000-€10,000 (£4,500-£9,000) but no prison penalty. Anyone who rents housing to an illegal immigrant faces up to three years’ jail.

The measure must now be approved by the senate.

Berlusconi’s conservative coalition has been trying to clamp down on illegal immigrants, bolstered by surveys showing that many Italians link immigrants to crime.

Last year, more than 36,000 immigrants from Africa and elsewhere arrived in Italy by boat, many coming ashore on the tiny Sicilian island of Lampedusa. Hundreds of boats run by organized smuggling rings set off from Libya alone.

Italy now ranks fourth after the US, Canada and France for the number of asylum-seekers, according to the Italian Refugee Council, a humanitarian group. Last year 31,160 people sought asylum in Italy, more than double the number from 2007.

This month, Italy has started sending back to Libya boatloads of people it intercepted in international waters without screening them first for possible asylum claims. The UN refugee agency, the Vatican and human rights organizations have voiced outrage, saying Italy is breaching international law.

The government, which has long complained that it has been left alone by the European Union to deal with illegal immigration, has defended the new policy, saying the UN refugee agency could screen asylum-seekers in Libya.

Italy’s new return policy is not part of the bill passed today by parliament’s lower house, but of an overall security bill that also would authorize citizen anti-crime patrols.

While Italy has long issued expulsion orders for illegal immigrants, the new law would criminalize illegal entry or residence – something critics say could result in people being turned in for simply going to a doctor.

Rocco Buttiglione, a centre-right MP, bitterly criticized the bill before the vote, saying it would bring “slavery” to Italy by creating a class of workers without any rights.

He said it would restrict illegal migrants to employment as factory workers and care workers “in a condition of material and moral inferiority”.

The end result, he said, would be that the immigrants, rather than turning to police when they needed to, would go to the mafia or seek vigilante justice.

Manuela del Lago, of the anti-immigrant Northern League party, which spearheaded the legislation, said Italy was embarking on the right path. “We don’t understand why we have to keep them all here, and in other countries they don’t take anyone,” she said.

Under an immigration law adopted when Berlusconi was last in power, immigrants must have a job awaiting them in order to get a residency permit.

Italian authorities issue expulsion orders for asylum-seekers who do not qualify, although many of the tens of thousands of clandestine migrants who arrive in Italy yearly slip through the cracks. They either stay in Italy secretly or travel to other European countries to find jobs or meet up with family.

May 16, 2009 Posted by | Amnesty International, Britain, Dambisa Moyo, Discrimination against Christians, France, Germany, Gonzi, Illegal Immigrants Riot, Illegal Immigration, Italy, Jesuits, Libya, Malta, Malta corruption, Malta Government, Malta Labour Party, Malta Nationalist Party, Malta Newspapers, Malta NGO's, Malta Prime Minister, Maltese, Maltese Justice, Médecins Sans Frontières, MLP, MSF, NGO groups, NGO's, PN, Spain, Terrorism, UN Agencies, Uncategorized, UNHCR, United Kingdom, United Nations | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Malta Government Back Stabs Italy and the Italians


The Maltese Government, last week tried to ease the Maltese Public preoccupation, by stating that illegal immigrants will be assisted in their needs at sea if required and let them get underway to their destination. This is after Italy has been trying its best to stop illegal immigration by patrolling international waters and illegal immigrants found at sea, were and will be taken back to Libya (their point of departure) following an expensive agreement Italy made with the Libyan Authorities and investing in giving the Libyan Authorities new fast patrol vessels for deterring illegal immigrants reaching Italian shores and territories.

Again, today, in a news paper report from Brussels, contradicts the Maltese Government’s stance by indicating that Maltese patrols will be working with Frontex Patrol Missions and that their Mission rules of engagement have not changed and that illegal immigrants found in international waters will be taken to the close port of refuge. It is obvious that illegal immigrants will avoid Italian territory which leaves Malta as their only remaining option as a Safe option in getting into Europe. This augurs well in the recent investments that the Maltese Government is undertaking in expanding and refurbishing illegal immigrants reception centre in Malta. It is also obvious that with Italy out of the picture, Frontex serving as a ferry service for illegal immigrants to Malta, and the Expansion of receptions centers in Malta, can only mean that not only the Maltese Government lied again to the Maltese Public regarding illegal immigration, on the contrary, he is preparing Malta from a massive influx of illegal immigrants, rumors has it that even detention will be reduced to four months after June.

Well I hope that the Maltese public is happy now that they assisted in sentencing our very existence out of Malta. I gave up on my home Country and it looks like it is set to be doomed back into poverty and an eventual Islamic state of Malta. I will be not surprised to In the future see our Maltese girls back in their ‘ghonnela’ and all their rights acquired in the last couple of decades lost to Islam, as there is enough of them to over run our security forces (police and military), then the Island is theirs, our statesman that betrayed you now don’t expect them to fight for you then as they will be gone to their ‘second’ home in Europe. Italy’s Frattini was right, turn Malta into an illegal migrant’s refuge for Europe. That day is fast approaching and its not a matter of if but of when.

By the Maltese Government back stabbing Italy in Europe and on the world stage regarding Italy’s stance and recently Italian Parliament laws regarding illegal immigration to protect Italy and the Italian citizens from illegal immigration invasion of Italian property, will in no way help Malta and the Maltese. Trying to get a free ride by demonizing Italy’s stance will in no way prevent Malta’s illegal Immigrant invasion of the islands. By letting NGO’s run the Country will only further our suspicions’ of the Maltese Government betrayal to the Nation and abdication of ALL MP’s responsibility towards our security and welfare. They betrayed us for the unaccountable amount of euros they stole from Europe. After June elections for European MEP’s Malta is doomed. Trust the PL and PN, better trust the devil, or else you are a brainless fool!!

Reported Today on The Times of Malta:</strong>

Friday, 15th May 2009
Frontex mission will not send migrants back to Libya
Ivan Camilleri, Brussels

The EU’s anti-immigration patrols will not turn back immigrants to Libya, as Italy is doing, but “will keep on following the current rules of engagement as established since 2006”.
“At the moment Frontex does not plan to change the operational plan for the Nautilus 2009. The Italian development is based on bilateral agreements between Italy and Libya. Frontex is coordinating cooperation between member states but the command and control stays in hands of the hosting country.”

The mission, in fact, is being hosted by Malta and according to a Frontex spokesman speaking to The Times yesterday from Warsaw, everything is business as usual and Frontex does not have any intention to return people to Libya, which is Italy’s new policy.
So far the Commission has failed to comment on Italy’s practice which has been heavily criticised by the UN’s refugee agency UNHCR, the Vatican’s commission on migration and even the Council of Europe for breaching migrants’ human rights.

The main line of protest is that by pushing migrants back out to sea, Italy is not giving immigrants an opportunity to apply for asylum as it is their right to.

Apart from Malta, which is hosting the mission through its armed forces, this year’s €10 million EU patrol mission is also being assisted by two helicopters from Germany and an aircraft from Luxembourg.

Italy and Finland are also taking part through experts who will assist the Maltese authorities.

It is not yet clear what the Frontex mission has achieved so far although the number of illegal immigrants coming to Malta since the start of the operation last month has been very limited. Similar operations during the past three years have not really had the desired effect as Malta was still reached by thousands of illegal immigrants.

According to the rules of engagement used in past years, the Frontex mission will only intervene if immigrants are in distress. In these cases, they are given help and taken to the nearest safe port.

Meanwhile, following last week’s development when Libya started taking back illegal immigrants found by Italy in international waters, the two countries are expected to start joint patrols for the first time in Libya’s territorial waters.

Yesterday, a ceremony was held in the Port of Gaeta in which Italy officially passed on to Libya three patrol boats to be used in these missions.

Italy’s Interior Minister Roberto Maroni said during the ceremony that Italy was investing to secure Europe’s borders and the EU should take note and start doing the same to help countries such as Italy, Malta and Greece.

These joint patrols, which were meant to have got under way earlier in the year but were postponed several times, form part of a bilateral agreement signed between Rome and Tripoli which also includes substantial financial assistance to Libya.

According to Minister Maroni, these joint patrols should stop illegal immigrants departing from Libya to Lampedusa and southern Italy. Almost all illegal immigrants arriving in Malta leave from the 2,000 kilometre long Libyan coast.

May 15, 2009 Posted by | Amnesty International, Gonzi, Illegal Immigration, Incompetent Malta Government, Italy, Jesuits, Libya, Malta, Malta Government, Malta Labour Party, Malta Nationalist Party, Malta Newspapers, Malta NGO's, Malta Police Force, Malta Prime Minister, Maltese, Médecins Sans Frontières, MLP, MSF, NGO groups, NGO's, PN, UN Agencies, UNHCR, United Nations | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Malta MP’s – European MEP’s – UK MP’s – Expenses Transperency!!


UK Politicians and Politics can only be described as in a real mess. The voting UK public are utterly disgraced behavior in claiming of expenses by MP’s. With the revelation and publication of claims made by UK Mp’s of major Parties, that a few months ago where calling Bankers Fat Cats, are no more than fat pigs themselves when it comes to help themselves in tax payers money.

The UK Parliament currently consists of , (New sic) Labour 350 seats, Conservative 193 seats, Liberal Democrat 63 seats, Scottish National Party/Plaid Cymru 10 seats, Democratic Unionist 10 seats, Sinn Fein 5 seats (Have not taken their seats and cannot vote) , Social Democratic & Labour Party 3 seats, Independent 5 seats, Independent Conservative 1 seat, Independent Labour 1seat, Ulster Unionist 1 seat, Respect 1 seat, Speaker & 3 Deputies 4 seats (Do not normally vote)– for a grand total of 646

UK Parliament Website
UK Parliament MP’s Salary
UK MP’s Allowances
UK MP’s Greenbook

UK Parliament Party Composition

 

Now that is enough said about UK Politicians. I am getting increasingly worried of wasted tax payers of MEP, as they are also never transparent or have their expenses scrutinized, to top it all they voted themselves a pay rise for 2009 when everybody else is asked to cut back, losing his job or losing his home.

 They are the least accountable lot that hide their tracks from investigative media reporters or publishing their audits. Thank God for the leaked Galvin report.

Interesting Reading about Galvin Report

Galvin Report on EU Taxpayer’s money wasting, and unaccountability

Then we come to our local MP’s in Malta. Never, but never have I seen any published break down report of MP’s expenses. The rule of thumb between the PL and PN has always been you scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours.

A well known secrets that most of our MP’s are involved in private Companies, and some have shares in each other’s Companies. What is more interesting is that our media does not even try to access any of these documents and inform the Public, as they are duty bound to do (remember the media adage: keeping the public informed).

The reason being that our media don’t like to rock the boat as they too have their snouts in the trough.

 Below is our Parliament Mission Statement and links to MP’s and Ministers code of ethics. All are full of lawyer type word jargon so that they leave themselves enough loop holes to escape any scrutiny of any wrong doing.

Who will ever help and care of our tax money, no wonder all of us Europeans are in such a mess trying to make ends meet and living from hand to mouth.Are all the thieves really imprisoned!!

Mission Statement (Malta Parliament)

The Maltese House of Representatives, through its elected representatives, is accountable to the people of Malta for the provision and conduct of representative government in the interest of Maltese citizens.

Towards this end the Office of the Clerk is duty bound to deliver effective, apolitical, professional and innovative services to support the efficient conduct of the House of Representatives, its committees as well as a range of services and facilities for Members of Parliament. 

Maltese Parliament Mission Statement 

Maltese Ministers Code of Ethics

Maltese MP’s Code of Ethics

TRY GORDON BROWN”S CALCULATOR (I WISH I HAD THE ONE LAWRENCE GONZI USES)

May 14, 2009 Posted by | Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Malta, Malta Government, Malta Labour Party, Malta Nationalist Party, Malta Newspapers, Malta Prime Minister, Malta Unions, Maltese, Maltese Justice, MLP, PN, President Of Malta, Spain, United Kingdom | , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Malta and Europe – Self on a Self Destruction Mission


The European Elections has jolted our own Politicians (PL and PN) and the European Politicians to crawl out of hibernation and will be active for a wee while (till after beginning of June) and then they will either be going into hibernation once again till another election threatens their job or they go on a partying/spending spree (off EU tax money).

The funny thing is that they sprung into action and acclaiming credit to a problem that they have ignored and denied for years, something that Malta, Italy and the EU Politicians are guilty in it. Now that their very job is under threat by not only the Maltese electorate but also a host of EU Countries electorate, as Polls on Euronews and other European Countries polls indicate, the people demand solutions. Most politicians of major parties with big budgets to ward off any flack from illegal immigration problems are as usual resorting to presenting themselves as fighters for the peoples cause and concerns, but by now surely the EU public knows very well that the Politicians efforts will only last till after June elections, then it’s the usual silent invasion of Europe continues. The usual European workers losing their jobs and free handouts to illegal immigrants.

Mentioning all of this, it is also true that since the start of this year, the number of boat people carrying illegal immigrants have fallen, not because there is a lack of illegal immigrants wanting to start their journey to Europe, but precisely because of the European Elections. The hidden hand behind this lucrative human trafficking business know very well that if hard line Politicians are voted in, it will be the end of their business. Who might have a stake in this high income business?

Well my grave suspicions are with those that have a lot at stake, the obvious losers of income if illegal immigration comes to a halt are- Yes, you’ve guessed it, our beloved EU Politicians with our Tax money cheque book , giving infinite amount of unaccountable money to African Nations to supposedly elevating those Nations out of Poverty. If the results in Africa looked promising, it would have been money well spent, as Africa could have started on the road to recovery, with less lives being lost and living standards improved. That is obviously not the case as everyone with a brain can notice. The other equally worried entities that will stand to lose if the traditional politicians are voted out of the EU are quite a few world class agencies and NGO groups. They are equally beneficiaries of infinite amount of money with no accountability, namely UNHCR, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), Amnestity International, the Jesuits and other highly tax money paid groups. They are also the once holding whole Countries hostage by blackmailing politicians into either playing into their hands or otherwise exposing their Countries into International shame and condemnation. Believe me they have enough power and friends in the media to do just that, even if it is not just. Their failure (Politicians and the other groups) will be dumped on our conscience just like they shirked off their involvement and responsibility when the financial crises hit the man in the street.

If, and only if, one supposes that the EU electorate manages to push in change in Europe, at least one battle would have been won for Europe, and delayed the occupation of Europe by this subtle masonry groups, which on one hand claim separation of church and state and on the other hand they manage to privilege other religions (namely Islam) .Try as you might, the day will come when Europe be no more and out of its ashes will rise Eurabia. The new World Order will be Islamic, like it or not. George Orwell predicted it as did Nostradamus. At the end of the day, Europe would have got what it has deserved, as it was to drunk and continually raped by its European sons and daughters that despised her by their neglect in finding true leaders among its midst to protect and legislate in keeping her(Europe) safe and powerful for her future generations. Europe deserves its self imposed doom.

May 11, 2009 Posted by | Amnesty International, Britain, Britain without identity, Discrimination against Christians, France, Germany, Hostage, Illegal Immegration, Illegal Immigration, Incompetent Malta Government, Italy, Jesuits, Libya, Malta, Malta corruption, Malta Government, Malta Labour Party, Malta Nationalist Party, Malta Newspapers, Malta NGO's, Malta Prime Minister, Maltese, Maltese Justice, Médecins Sans Frontières, MLP, Modern Christian Persecution, MSF, NGO groups, NGO's, PN, Sangatte, Spain, Terrorism, UN Agencies, UNHCR, United Kingdom, United Nations | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Malta and European Democracy


Democracy is a funny thing. With Europe boasting that it is the cradle of democracy, the crème de la crème when it comes to respecting freedom for European citizens. A role model for world Countries to respect mankind.

On paper and legislation, the EU and its member states they look honorable and a good cause to work and aim for, but what is the reality.

Unaccountability in EU institutions is a well known fact. The extravagance and the expensive operational conduct in doing EU business in Brussels and Strasbourg is financially irresponsible and waste of tax payers money, as is MEP behavior when it comes to the financial package an MEP receives for his services, which is another unaccountable exercise, instead of leading by example they illustrate that tax money can be used at their free will with no accountability, then they claim that the financial crisis with the massive bail outs from States and Countries was due to Financial Institutions Fat Cats. Who are they kidding? They are just as irresponsible. The EU boast itself as being the single highest contributor to poor Countries, I can assure everyone that with the amount of money the EU poured out to poor Countries, each citizen of those poor Countries should be at least a millioner by now. So what happened, why for example are African Countries still in the bad old shape as they were in the middle ages? Again EU Beurocracy and unaccountability is breeding ground for corruption and the want for more free aide. Even in recognition of NGO’s that do actually work for noble causes, and actually receive EU monetary contributions for their input, in my opinion they will never make headway, unless all aide for lifting people out of poverty is coupled by those Countries wanting aide become fully subscribed participants’ to UN charters and conventions. One cannot de-couple politics from humanitarian agencies; otherwise you are only creating temporary relief but permanent grief to those in need. The way the whole aid agencies and NGO’s sharad is going in this world is creating unorganized resources in both human and financial going to waste. Groups working for the same cause should merge and not compete in this sphere, there goes tax and charity money down the drain again, just for the sake of the glory not the cause.

The same democracy that the EU states are proud of is suffocating the freedom of speech and expression. I say this because instead of our Politicians coming out with their honest vision for the EU vis a vis the future of the EU, they keep feeding us their promise of Confederation of European States, while in reality their aim is Federal States of Europe. The reason why I am convinced of this is because the whole of EU in Brussels and European leaders did not trust their citizens with a referendum for the adaptation of an EU constitution, and the ones that where entrusted with a referendum and voted against (France and Netherland and Ireland) where ridiculed and either bypassed (French and Dutch citizens), while the Irish will be forced into another referendum with the only changes being cosmetic, namely from a constitution into a binding treaty with hardly any changes in the text of both. Other Countries where even more degrading towards their citizens, that they did not even discuss the implications or hold a referendum with their citizens to at least involve EU citizens in being participants’ and feeling part of the European Union project. This is democracy in Europe today, year 2009. In the good old days it used to be called treason, but today even the media EU puppets have a lot to lose by informing the public about the implications let alone investigating the subject.
Talking about the media and democracy is even a more weird marriage of two very different species. In Malta freedom of speech seems to be only granted if the two main parties agree to let it happen. While both the Labour Party and the Nationalist Party have their own media (printed and audio visual), paid by their own undisclosed funding, other competing parties do not have this privilege, not even on state TV. Their exposure to the public is very limited, often in interrupted group talk shows, but that is democracy as interpreted by the PL and PN. The AD ,AN and other minority parties have an uphill struggle with all sorts of obstacles in expressing their policies to the public just because the Government says they don’t have enough support. Well , when these situations happen in Countries outside the EU we call them police States, Undemocratic Counties and all kinds of unfavorable description that one can find in a political dictionary , but not if it happens in an EU County.

What the EU needs is not less participation, but more. The European public is much, much more intelligent than the MEP’s combined give them credit for. In today’s electronic age there is no excuse why the EU public cannot participate more in deciding for Europe, internet access has made communication and polling an everyday thing, but only if Politicians have the will, albeit exposing their true zest for power. Not because it is not possible, its because they want to keep a stronghold and control the public. They only have to make their efforts and lame excuses once every five years and then go into hibernation till the next election.

EU democracy, preach it to the birds, you might learn a thing or two.

Some eye catching and true information I managed to get from :
http://www.openeurope.org.uk/research/europeanparliament2009.pdf

May 8, 2009 Posted by | Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Malta, Malta Government, Malta Nationalist Party, Malta Newspapers, Malta NGO's, Malta Prime Minister, Malta Public Broadcasting Service, Maltese, MLP, NGO's, PBS, PN, Spain, UN Agencies, United Kingdom, United Nations | , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment